Anthrax Vaccine

Anthrax “was the first infectious disease for which scientists isolated the causative organism.  French parasitologist C. J. Davaine first saw the rod-shaped organisms under a microscope in the blood of infected sheep in 1850. German bacteriologist Robert Koch demonstrated in 1876 that the disease occurred when spores of Bacillus anthracis were injected into mice.  French biologist Louis Pasteur also demonstrated that the bacteria caused the disease and in 1881 developed an effective vaccine against anthrax in animals.” … ax-508.pdf ….”in 1876, Robert Koch definitively established a microbial origin for anthrax making this the first disease for which this was done. A live attenuated animal vaccine was developed and tested by Louis Pasteur in 1881. An improved animal vaccine containing a suspension of an avirulent, nonencapsulated live strain of B. anthracis was developed in 1939. The role of toxin in the pathogenesis of anthrax was demonstrated in 1954. A human vaccine composed of cell-free culture filtrate was developed in 1954, and in 1970 an improved cell-free vaccine was licensed in the United States.”

During the mid-1950s, the Army staged a vaccine trial among the workers of the Arms Textile Mill in Manchester New Hampshire, begun in 1955 and run through 1957 according to non-mainstream accounts. Official military history records that an “unexpected outbreak” occurred in 1957, killing four of five lung-infected workers at the mill.  “The mill on the banks of the Merrimack River is now gone, destroyed in what was then one of the world’s largest decontamination projects ever, and most people in Manchester have forgotten about the outbreak. Nevertheless, the millworkers who died left a legacy that reverberates now as the nation confronts a battery of anthrax attacks. The episode enabled science to show that the anthrax vaccine works. ”It’s the only anthrax epidemic we’ve had in this country,” said Dr. Philip S. Brachman, an expert in anthrax epidemiology, who in 1957, the year the Arms Textile Mill workers became ill, was in the process of testing an anthrax vaccine for the Centers for Disease Control. By coincidence, he had chosen the Manchester mill as a site for his experiment. The fact that no vaccinated workers got anthrax during the epidemic, he said, ”really suggested that the vaccination was effective.”  …Cutaneous, or skin, anthrax, characterized by black lesions on the hands, was not unheard of in textile manufacturing at that time. The Arms Textile Mill, which turned goat hair and wool into lining for fashionable suits, recorded more than 100 cases of it from 1941 to 1957…Perhaps that is why more workers did not participate in the vaccine study that Dr. Brachman was conducting. Few, if any, would have known about inhalation anthrax…”

…”A central activity at the Arms Textile Mill throughout the 1950s was the processing of goat hair imported from Pakistan, Iraq and Iran….In an amazing coincidence, at the same time as the deadly Arms Mill outbreak the manufacturing plant was the site for tests using an experimental vaccine. Tests on the mill workers – who were considered at risk for anthrax due to handling animal products such as goat and sheep hair – had begun quietly in May 1955 and were sponsored by the Biological Warfare Laboratories of the U.S. Chemical Corps at Fort Detrick. The prototype vaccine tested at the mill had been developed by Fort Detrick scientist Dr. George G. Wright. The vaccine was briefly produced a few years later by the pharmaceutical company Merck Sharp & Dohme, today Merck and Co. Inc. Company head George Wilhelm Merck was a principal advocate for biological warfare in the 1940s and 1950s and was a founder of Fort Detrick. Wright’s vaccine is essentially the same serum administered today to American troops and others at risk of anthrax….no samples of that animal hair exist today, no up-to-date testing can be accomplished, and results from tests conducted in 1957 and 1958 remain inconclusive. Further compounding matters – despite that the animal hair in question was imported from thousands of miles away by means considered antiquated and unsafe today – is that there were no cases of any type of anthrax ever reported or recorded along the long route to New Hampshire.”

“Following an expensive decontamination process in 1971, after which the mill still tested positive for anthrax, the buildings were demolished. The colossal pile of rubble was systematically soaked in chlorine for decontamination and, when that proved ineffective on the mill’s huge hickory beams, an incinerator was erected on the site that burned the wood to fine ash. The remaining bricks and stone were carted away for nearby burial. Today the old Arms site is a parking lot for an upscale commercial area….Also involved in the 1957 Arms mill tests, according to declassified Fort Detrick documents and former scientists who worked on the project, were Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, and Britain’s top secret Microbiological Warfare Research Laboratories at Porton Down.”

February, 2010 — New Hampshire “anthrax patient recovering”


Gary Matsumoto, from the New York Times, authored a book about the anthrax vaccine which was injected into soldiers for the Iraqi invasions:  “When troops went to the Middle East to fight the Gulf War in 1991 and the Iraq War in 2003, many—perhaps thousands—received an experimental anthrax vaccine instead of the FDA-approved vaccine. Without their knowledge or consent, the U. S. government used them as human guinea pigs in a massive medical experiment that went disastrously wrong.”


April 2000: “Congressman Chris Shays calls the military’s anthrax vaccination program “a well-intentioned but overwrought response to the threat of anthrax.” Many soldiers agree. They are more frightened of the mandatory regimen making them sick than they are of possible court martial…  Many news reports have accused the Pentagon of experimentally inserting the substance squalene in place of the usual alum in the anthrax vaccine. They claim this could explain why some Gulf War veterans suffer a range of debilitating symptoms collectively known as ‘Gulf War Syndrome… So many possible causes have been proffered — exposure to chemical weapons, depleted uranium weapons, oil fires, sand mites, insecticides and stress — for the syndrome’s vast range of symptoms that finding an underlying condition or a
simple explanation has proven elusive…'”


The book “Germs”, released in 2001, by Judith Miller, Stephen Engelberg and William Broad, opens with this statement of purpose: “In December 1997, six years after the Persian Gulf War, the Pentagon announced that it had decided to vaccinate its 2.4 million soldiers and reservists against anthrax. It seemed to be a curious move… Was the decision driven by a new, even more frightening danger from germ weapons?… We set out to explore for the New York Times what had motivated the decision.”

The vaccines in question were provided by the military’s only licensed contractor, BioPort.


Dr. Joseph Mercola’s newsletter features an article on  anthrax vaccine with comments from Dr. Meryl Nass:

“Dr. Nass has carefully studied this [post-9/11 bioterror] incident and, while there’s no definitive cause-effect connection, she believes the timing of the incident is suspect and could potentially have been motivated by a need to validate the use of the anthrax vaccine. Alternatively, it may have been a ruse to motivate the approval of war with Iraq, which we knew had anthrax, or to appropriate more money for biodefense…“After the letters, you didn’t need any evidence,” she says. “The federal government has spent 60 billion dollars since the anthrax letters on biodefense… not only against anthrax but against many other agents as well.  So that’s a 60 billion dollar boost to the biodefense industry.  It’s a lot of money.”   The U.S. government also subsequently purchased $1.4 billion-worth of anthrax vaccine for public use, and recently signed a contract for another 45 million doses at $1.25 billion dollars.  Score: $2.65 BILLION for the vaccine maker, for a vaccine that previously had sold for a mere $2 to $3 per dose for military recruits.”


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