Contamination Trail

Trail of Contamination (list in progress) – attempting to account for all the known cases and locations, including an unidentified man with inhalation-anthrax assumed to have worked among the 2,000 Brentwood Rd. employees. No information on this survivor, who checked into the Falls Church hospital on Oct. 22, has been found…his case was upgraded to ‘good’ prior to a published report on Nov.9. while Mr. Richmond (Brentwood) and Mr. Hose (State Dept site) were still in ‘fair’ condition.
New Jersey :
Hamilton mail center –all four anthrax letters in evidence, stamped ‘Trenton’ were processed here (CDC graph,
Hamilton accounting office (accountant Linda Burch was New Jersey’s last case, diagnosed with cutaneous anthrax Oct 22 . The building she worked in housed the N.J. office of Representative Christopher Smith)
Princeton Main Post Office, West Windsor [Oct.22, “Significant amounts of anthrax have been found throughout the facility, acting State Health Commissioner George DiFerdinando said yesterday.” ]
Bellmawr (35 mi. from Hamilton), facility closed Oct.31
Princeton mailbox ( found Aug. 2002)
New York :
New York Post, 1211 (6th) Ave. of the Americas, site of ‘index patient’ (Johanna Huden, Sep 21), and two more cases in late-October after a “clean bill of health” had been given to the Post, according to chairman Lachlan Murdoch. The ‘Editor’ letter was found Oct.19, unopened, in Post’s trash.
ABC News, West 66th St; “announced yesterday [Oct 19] that tests for anthrax at ABC came back negative” [nydailynews link below] –no letter was ever found
NBC News, 30 Rockefeller Plaza
Governor Pataki’s office  and incoming mail; “Pataki said 100 additional tests at his Third Ave. office in Manhattan, where traces of anthrax had been found Wednesday, came back negative”
–CBS News, West 57th St.
#4 fatality, Kathy Nguyen worked at theManhattan Eye, Ear & Throat Hospital (Ms. Nguyen lived in the Bronx) was hospitalized Oct. 28 and died Oct. 31
–USPS Morgan Center (six high-speed sorting machines, one dust-extracting machine), no exposures were reported
Mayor Giuliani’s office (incoming package; video tape sent from Tom Brokaw’s NBC office)
Florida :
–#1 fatality from Lantana, Mr. Bob Stevens (checked into JFK Medical Center)
–AMI, Boca Raton, where two letters were allegedly opened, the J-Lo package (not anthrax) and the ‘real’ (presumed) threat addressed to the National Enquirer containing anthrax ” from the letter opened by Stephanie Dailey in her office, which was in or near the first floor mailroom.” (J-LoLetter link below). 3 people at AMI are the only confirmed anthrax-positive cases in Florida.
…”The FBI’s search operation began Aug. 27 [2002]and ended Sept. 8. It was the first comprehensive search of the supermarket tabloid’s publishing office. According to court documents, hundreds of letters, 33 mail-cart folders, 12 mailroom shelves, 11 mail-slot vacuum samplings and 11 box tops collected throughout the mail room were seized from the building by investigators. They also took two vacuum samples and six carpet samples.”
–six post offices; all six had “medically insignificant” trace amounts
Washington, DC and outlying region :
“All mail to addresses in the District of Columbia goes to the Brentwood Road center, where about 2,000 people work and where all the anthrax victims worked in the backrooms. From there, mail to Congress goes to the sorting center on P Street Southeast.” Despite location contamination, no mail in Washington D.C. beyond the Daschle & Leahy letters was announced or reported to be tainted.
–#2 and #3 victims, Brentwood USPS facility (Brentwood Road NE, Wash.DC)
mail sorting center on P Street Southeast, about 15 blocks from the Capitol.”
–neighborhood post office “at 45 L St. Southwest” (Oct 26)
–post office at Dulles International Airport (Oct. 30)
–neighborhood post office in Northwest D.C., Friendship Heights (Oct.30)
18 area buildings
–14 Senators’ offices
–3 House offices; “The House of Representatives recessed on 17 Oct. for several days to allow decontamination of office areas”
–Falls Church, VA (Inova Fairfax hospital): admits man who sorts express mail near Baltimore-Washington Int’l Airport and carries it to Brentwood Road– Mr. Leroy Richmond of Stafford, Va.,_Virginia; a second unidentified man with inhalation anthrax was checked in at Inova Fairfax on Oct 22, 3 days after Mr. Richmond
–Howard University
–Rockville, MD (FDA)
–Silver Spring, MD (Walter Reed)
–Langley, VA (CIA)
–Alexandria, VA (State Dept)
–Sterling, VA (State Dept. mail, about 20 miles from central D.C.; exposure/infection case in Mr. David Hose); ..”three sorting machines in Sterling have tested positive”
United States:
–Nevada, “On Saturday, Nevada Gov. Kenny Guinn said a third anthrax test on a letter sent from Malaysia to a Microsoft office came back positive..” This letter was described as a “return to sender”, originating from Microsoft’s Reno office: “a letter received at a Microsoft office in Reno, Nev., tested positive for anthrax: the envelope, in which Microsoft had sent a check to a vendor in Malaysia, had been returned, with the check intact. It also contained pornographic pictures cut from a magazine, and dusted with anthrax spores….In Reno,..the state lab tested directly for anthrax spores and got a hit. ”
–#5 fatality from Oxford Connecticut, no contamination!
     *envelope found [Nov 30] at the Farkas home in Seymour, Ct., approx. 1 mile from victim #5
      Dec. 2 – ..”trace amounts of anthrax..were found on four pieces of equipment at the Wallingford (CT.) postal facility”
Kansas City, MO (in postal center trash)
Indianapolis, IN (sorting equipment) reported Oct 31; “Trace amounts of spores were found on a printer shipped to the Indiana facility from a mail-processing center in New Jersey know to be contaminated with anthrax.  The spores were limited to the equipment”
Outside United States:
–Kenya – “a doctor and his family..opened a letter from Atlanta, GA three days before the September 11 attacks…A powder in the letter tested positive for anthrax”,0,1308739,full.story
Argentina (on a travel brochure from Florida)
Brazil (in or on a letter “mailed Oct.5  from New York  and received Oct.16”  at the Rio de Janeiro office of the New York Times, described as “not dangerous” but officially unconfirmed)
Peru “a contaminated letter from [the State Dept] wound up in a diplomatic pouch sent to the U.S. Embassy in Peru”
Lithuania (US Embassy mailbag)Oct. 31 – “A mailbag from the U.S. Embassy in Lithuania tested positive for anthrax spores…Five mailbags were tested as part of a worldwide sweep of U.S. Embassies…The tests involved injecting mice with a suspicious substance taken from the bag, which then died….Preliminary tests of the mailbags showed two out of the five to possibly contain anthrax spores, U.S. State Department spokesman Richard Boucher said Wednesday.”
–Pakistan (contamination on a letter to Pakistan’s largest newspaper)
–India (anthrax in a letter sent to a government agency)
Chile (anthrax threat letter from Zurich to Santiago)
–Russia, Yekaterinburg (US consulate mailbag)
                                                                     Timeline, by case-victim
Sep 21–New York Post – Johanna Huden, first notice of finger lesion. The contamination is from an unopened letter ‘near’ her desk. Logically, Huden would have to have developed her lesion the same day the contaminated letter arrived, bucking the odds and evidence which put the average incubation time at 4-6 days or longer. Her case is unique.
Sep 22–Hamilton N.J. mail center – Richard Morgano, developed an arm lesion from reaching into the sorting machines. Reports indicated his case was “never confirmed”, but his doctor confirmed the infection.
Sep 24 –Boca Raton, Ernesto Blanco takes ill (leaves work early Sep28, hospitalized Oct1) . Blanco was noted to have made a ‘full recovery’ while fellow ‘inhalation’ survivors suffered lingering medical problems more than a year later, and beyond
Sep 26 –Boca Raton, Bob Stevens takes ill (in 2003, Esquire article changes timing to a later day)
–NBC –Erin O’Connor, developed cutaneous anthrax from a letter “opened between Sept. 19-25, that was kept inside another envelope at NBC headquarters”; ..”the woman began precautionary treatment with Cipro, an antibiotic, on Oct. 1, after developing symptoms including a low-grade fever and a rash.”
Sep 27 –West Trenton letter carrier, Teresa Heller, along with Richard Morgano are NJ’s first known cases; first 2 postal worker cases
Sep 28 –ABC, infant exposed, hospitalized Oct.1
Oct 1 –CBS, Claire Fletcher, lesion present
         –NBC, Casey Chamberlain, leg lesion present; Ms. Chamberlain opened the “Brokaw” letter and was sick earlier than her co-worker Erin O’Connor, and also unwittingly contaminated her own home by her own account [see CaseByCase]
        –Ernesto Blanco is admitted to Cedars Medical Center in Miami  (diagnosed Oct 16, released Oct.23). Cedars Miami and JFK Medical were both owned by Hospital Corporation of America, belonging to Senator Bill Frist, MD,  and family.
Oct 2 — *Bob Stevens, AMI Boca Raton, admitted to hospital Oct.2, dies Oct 5
Oct 8 –[Ernie Blanco’s]”case became more complex once the Stevens case came to light…the hospital..conducted a nasal passage swab..discovering anthrax spores in Blanco’s nose. Blanco did not contract respiratory anthrax, hospital officials said, and so far has exhibited no clinical symptoms”
Oct 10 –AMI mailroom worker Stephanie Dailey is confirmed positive (last of only 3 Florida cases, though Ms. Dailey was not counted as a case, remaining well throughout)
Oct 13 –Bellmawr P.O. worker develops lesion
Oct 14 –Norma Wallace, Hamilton P.O. hospitalized Oct 19; first NJ inhalation case
Oct 15 –Patrick D. O’Donnell, Bucks Co, Pa. worker at Hamilton
Oct 16 –mail-sorter from Hamilton, Jyotsna Patel, develops inhalation anthrax
Oct 18 –Hamilton NJ mail center closes (remains closed until March 2005)
Oct 19–  –Leroy Richmond, airport postal center worker who carried mail to Brentwood,  hospitalized; Mr. Richmond from Stafford,Va. went to the hospital in Falls Church, VA to recover.
Oct 21 –*Thomas Morris Jr,, Brentwood Road postal center, admitted to hospital and dies within hours
Oct 21 –*Joseph Curseen Jr, Brentwood Road postal center, enters hospital, dies Oct 22
Oct 22 –unidentified Brentwood “postal supervisor” admitted to Falls Church hospital for inhalation anthrax infection, survives
Oct 22 –Linda Burch, Hamilton office accountant, admitted for cutaneous treatment
Oct 24 –Mark Cunningham, NYPost page editor, develops lesion (dx on Nov2)
Oct 25 –State Dept, Sterling,Va. facility worker David R. Hose is admitted for inhalation in ‘guarded’ condition
Oct 27 –NYPost mailroom employee, William Monagas, who handled suspect mail Oct 12, develops treatable lesion
Oct 28 –*Kathy Nguyen, Manhattan Eye, Ear & Throat worker, admitted to hospital; “One small clue was anthrax found on Nguyen’s clothing, according to health officials.  It was unlikely that the clothes were contaminated after she had gotten sick”;
           –A Bellmawr N.J. postal worker (resident in Delaware) developed skin anthrax; the facilty was closed 10/31 (this man’s condition was not counted as a case by the CDC)
Nov 13 –*Ottilie Lundgren, Oxford, Conn. first fell ill on the 13th; she died Nov 21 “six days after she went to the hospital complaining of respiratory problems”;
–a single piece of  ‘spore’ mail is found in late November in the next town (Seymour) when by chance the elderly next-door neighbor of the Farkas family died –processed within seconds after the Leahy letter… “investigators were able to find a likely mail connection by tracking 300 letters that passed through postal sorting machines along with the Leahy letter…The most confusing aspect of the mail theory remains the fact that the Farkas family has shown no symptoms of illness and tested negative in nasal swab tests”
Who was John S. Farkas? –see the CaseByCase page
In Washington: “The 28 people who tested positive for exposure were six Capitol police officers, 20 Daschle aides and two staff members who work for Sen. Russell Feingold, D-Wis., who occupies the office suite next to [Daschle]”
>>this number is variously recorded as 31. No infections developed and none were counted as cases.
[10-17-01]”Anthrax Hits Daschle’s Staff Hard” — “…Speaker Dennis Hastert said 29 people had tested positive for exposure in the Senate, including many aides to Daschle and two Capitol police officers.
…Daschle spokesman Jay Carson said doctors had noted that tests on the Congressional staffers “indicate exposure and not infection, and there is a very clear distinction”…Hundreds of people were tested Tuesday after the suspicious letter was opened in Daschle’s office Monday. Nasal swabs were used on the staffers…”

“Response: (incomplete)  The total cost of the anthrax bioattacks was certainly over $1 billion. Decontamination of the Senate office building, conducted by the EPA, cost $23 million. Decontamination of the Brentwood postal facility cost approx.$180 million. Decontamination of the Hamilton postal facility was not completed until March 2005 [at a cost of approx.$90 million]. Through 2002, the U.S. Postal Service had received $700 million in funding for decontamination of facilities, health care, and procurement of irradiation equipment for irradiating mail. Additional uncounted costs at local levels include cleanup and response to false alarms over “white powder” of household origin, and lost productivity associated with resultant work stoppages.”

..”The United States Environmental Protection Agency spent $41.7 million to clean up government buildings in Washington, D.C.”

Between October 8 and 10, 2001, they took 136 samples and got 20 positive results.10 of the 20 samples (50 percent) they took in the mailroom were positive.

5 of 6 samples (83 percent) they took in Stephanie Dailey’s office were positive.

2 of 21 samples (10 percent) taken in Bob Stevens’ work area were positive, BUT that was only true because they went back to Bob Stevens work area and did REPEAT tests on his computer keyboard.

Ed Lake concludes: “While the full report of what the FBI found in its search is considered “evidence” and is confidential, there is enough that is publicly known to confirm that the anthrax did NOT come from the J-Lo letter.  It came from the letter opened by Stephanie Dailey in her office, which was in or near the first floor mailroom.” [thirdring>>a letter that was opened on or about Sept. 25, but did it really contain anthrax?]



University of Minnesota Bioterrorism timeline :

Ed Lake research/news ;

Tru TV (trail by victim)



Sep 19 — the suspect ‘J-Lo’ anthrax letter sent to American Media Inc. is opened in the 3rd floor office of Bob Stevens. Stephanie Dailey remembered another letter she opened about Sept.25, announced on the Larry King show. Ms. Dailey had just returned from a two-week vacation before the ‘letter’ arrived. She had no symptoms and reportedly felt ‘fine’ throughout the ordeal.

Oct 1 — AMI employees Bob Stevens and Ernesto Blanco are hospitalized. Maria Moffett is ‘out’ with pneumonia, according to the account of Maria Peters. Were there other AMI employees with pneumonia or respiratory problems?On Oct. 14, AMI summer intern ‘Jordan’ became ill with a flu-like sickness that tested negative for anthrax. The last possible day for a regular employee to gain entry in the building was before 4 p.m. on Sunday Oct. 7.

Oct 4 —Bob Stevens’ illness announced: “Case of pulmonary anthrax in Florida  – A 63-year-old Florida man is hospitalized with pulmonary anthrax, but officials say there is no evidence that the case was caused by a bioterrorist attack. The case is described as isolated, and the cause is unknown. The last previous case of pulmonary anthrax in the United States was in 1976.”

Oct 8 –Ernie Blanco illness announced: “Anthrax exposure identified in second Floridian – Anthrax is found in the nose of a coworker of Robert Stevens [deceased]…Ernesto Blanco, 73, a mail supervisor at American Media, a tabloid newspaper company in Lantana [Boca Raton], Fla. Dick Spertzel, a retired Army expert on biological weapons, says the anthrax episode most likely is the result of a deliberate release.” >>On Oct 16, Blanco’s condition is reported: “his symptoms were not typical of inhalational anthrax, and tests of his sputum and chest fluid were negative. But he was treated as a precaution, and later tests, including polymerase chain reaction, indicated inhalational anthrax.”

Oct 10 –” Third Florida worker exposed a third worker at American Media in Lantana, Fla., has been exposed to anthrax and that the inquiry there is now a criminal investigation. Anthrax was found in the nasal passages of a 35-year-old woman who works in the American Media building; officials report that she is not sick but is being treated with antibiotics. Investigators tell the New York Times that the anthrax specimens from the Florida workers are sensitive to penicillin, suggesting that they were not bioengineered……Stephanie Dailey, 36, the third person exposed to anthrax at American Media in Lantana, Fla., worked in the company’s mailroom, along with one of the other two exposed people. The revelation spreads fear among local postal workers.”

Oct 13 — “Five more employees of American Media in Florida are found to have anthrax antibodies, indicating exposure [to something], but none are ill.” The company executives, not the health dept., tells this to the press first.

Nov 1 — More Florida anthrax
In Florida, anthrax is found in a sixth post office. The USPS and health dept. state the amount of contamination is “medically insignificant” . This is the last reported anthrax incident in Florida.


New Jersey

Oct 19 — Second NJ postal worker hospitalized [R. Morgano?]
“A second New Jersey postal worker is reported to be hospitalized with anthrax and is expected to recover. He is a 35-year-old man who works at the Hamilton Township regional mail center, which handled letters sent to NBC News and Sen. Tom Daschle’s office.” [plus letters to NYPost and Sen. Leahy –all four “evidence” letters allegedly passed through Hamilton, though reports often curiously omit mentioning the “Post” and “Leahy” letters]. The “TruTV” webpage writes that Morgano was never ‘confirmed’, though he was clearly counted as a ‘case’ and his experience with an arm lesion has been documented by the press. Is this a reference to someone else?

Oct 23 — “Anthrax in more New Jersey postal workers
A postal worker in Hamilton, N.J., may have inhalational anthrax, according to state and CDC officials. The woman, who works at the Trenton Processing and Distribution Center in Hamilton, is said to be in stable condition… a mail carrier from the West Trenton office and a sorter from the Hamilton facility, are reported to have cutaneous anthrax. Anthrax-containing letters that were sent to Sen. Tom Daschle and NBC News passed through the Hamilton facility.” [N. Wallace]

Oct 28 –” Eighth case of inhalational anthrax
Inhalational anthrax is confirmed in a female New Jersey postal worker who sorts mail at the Hamilton Township facility near Trenton. She is reported to be hospitalized and improving.” [J. Patel]

Oct 31 —  spores found on printer
Officials report finding anthrax spores on a printer in a private mail maintenance center in Indianapolis. The printer was shipped to the firm for servicing from a contaminated mail-processing center in Trenton, N.J.

Bellmawr worker may have skin anthrax
In New Jersey, health officials announce that a 54-year-old man who works at the Bellmawr mail processing center near Camden has possible cutaneous anthrax. The man has a mild case and is not hospitalized. The Bellmawr facility, which sorts mail for more than 150 post offices in South Jersey, is about 35 miles from the Hamilton mail processing center, which processed three anthrax-laced letters previously. [Postal Service forensics believed only three anthrax-bearing letters could have ever been sent, announced Oct 24]

Nov 2 — “Anthrax in NJ accouting firm mail bin
Anthrax is found in a mail bin at the Hamilton, N.J., accounting firm where a woman who has cutaneous anthrax works. Health officials say they don’t believe the bacteria became airborne….[reported Oct 29] The woman’s office is in the same building as the office of Rep. Christopher Smith.” [L. Burch]

2002 — The Princeton Mailbox, discovered in August after testing 600 area mailboxes


New York

Sep 22 — Cutaneous anthrax in NY Post employee – Index Patient (first case)
Officials at the New York Post reveal that Johana Huden, an employee in the editorial page office, has cutaneous anthrax. Public health officials say her symptoms appeared Sep 22, and she was subsequently treated with antibiotics, but she was not tested for anthrax until the germ was found at NBC. [most reports, based on first-hand recollection,  record Ms. Huden’s infection was underway on Sept. 21]

Sep 28 — ABC News — the infant son of an employee.. is reported to have visited ABC’s New York offices on Sep 28, announced Oct 15 that the child has cutaneous anthrax

Oct 12 — Brokaw assistant has skin anthrax [from letter believed to be postmarked Sep 18] An assistant to NBC news anchor Tom Brokaw is found to have cutaneous anthrax, 2 weeks after she handled two threatening letters addressed to Brokaw. The New York Times newsroom is evacuated after reporter Judith Miller, coauthor of a book on bioterrorism, opens a letter containing an unidentified white powder. Anthrax scares are also reported at the Los Angeles Times and the Columbus Dispatch, but they turn out to be unfounded.” [E. O’Connor]

Oct 15 — ABC News officials announce that the infant son of an employee is being treated for cutaneous anthrax.The baby is reported to have visited ABC’s New York offices on Sep 28.

Oct 17Spores in Pataki’s office
In New York, Gov. George Pataki announces that anthrax spores have been found in the state police quarters in his Manhattan office, and the office is closed for testing and decontamination.

Oct 18 — an aide to CBS News anchor Dan Rather [was] found to have cutaneous anthrax” [C. Fletcher]

Oct 25 –A 61-year-old New York City woman who works in a stockroom at Manhattan’s Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital is gravely ill with inhalational anthrax, according to an [Oct 29] evening announcement from Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. She became ill Oct 25 and was admitted to Lenox Hill Hospital Oct 28 in serious condition.” [K. Nguyen]

Oct 29 — Lawsuit filed by postal workers
The largest postal workers’ union in New York City files a lawsuit demanding the immediate closure of Morgan Station, the city’s largest mail sorting center, for decontamination. Postal officials announced last week that anthrax had been found on four high-speed sorting machines at the station. The Postal Service maintains that the center is safe except for the part of the third floor housing the four machines.

Oct 31Nguyen dies of anthrax
Kathy T. Nguyen, 61, dies of inhalational anthrax, becoming the nation’s fourth victim and New York City’s first

Nov 1  — Two more NYC mail-sorting machines contaminated
In New York City, the Postal Service says tests have detected anthrax on two more mail-sorting machines at the Morgan Station center, where four machines previously were found to be contaminated. Spores were also found on a dust-extracting machine not connected to the building’s ventilation system.

Nov 4 — Anthrax traces on package to Giuliani
Traces of anthrax are reported to have been found on a package containing a videotape sent to New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani from the office of NBC News anchor Tom Brokaw. Health officials say they believe the tape was cross-contaminated from the anthrax-laced letter sent to Brokaw’s office in Sepember.

>>Connecticut; on Dec.1 or 2, traces of anthrax were found at the Wallingford, CT, postal center “where mail bound for Oxford and Seymour is sorted” (none was found at the Seymour post office)


Washington DC: According to a November 6, 2001 article … oundup.htm , the **facilities that tested positive at any time were:

**Postal Service: 13 facilities tested positive

**Pentagon: ..”found in two mailboxes” inside a US post office within the building

**Supreme Court: “a trace amount of anthrax was found in the court’s basement mailroom” [shut down Oct.26 for testing ]

**CIA: “trace amounts of anthrax were found there on Oct.25…not enough to cause illness” ; at CIA’s Material Inspection Facility

**Health and Human Services: “Despite earlier positive readings, further testing has found no evidence”…

**Agriculture: “Preliminary tests last week found anthrax at the offices of USDA’s Economic Research Service on M Street…but a subsequent round of tests were negative”

and the Congress buildings:

**Longworth House Office Building – “Most of the Longworth House office building reopened Monday, 10 days after closing…still facing clean-up is the Hart..building..where Daschle received an anthrax letter…”. The Longworth contamination was described as “low-level”

**Hart Senate Office Building; 11 Senators’ suites; (including)  T.Daschle, R.Feingold, R.Graham(Florida), D.Feinstein(Calif.), B.Boxer(Calif.), R. Lugar(Indiana), J. Corzine (New Jersey);Nov 20, anthrax in the mailrooms of E. Kennedy(Mass.), C. Dodd (Conn.)…”Anthrax traces in Kennedy and Dodd offices
Traces of anthrax are found in the office mailrooms of Sens. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass., and Christopher Dodd, D-Conn. Officials suspect the anthrax got there through contact with anthrax-bearing letters mailed to Sen. Patrick Leahy, D-Vt., or Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle, D-S.D. So far, anthrax traces have turned up in 13 senators’ offices besides Daschle’s, whose office is the only one known to have opened an anthrax letter. The Kennedy and Dodd offices are both in the Russell Senate Office Building.”  Senator Leahy’s office was also in the Russell building. An investigator learned the Leahy letter was delivered, according to Leahy’s aide, though it was widely reported that the letter was not delivered. [see page The Letters]

[Oct 25]…”The mailroom in the Dirksen Senate Office Building where a trace of anthrax was discovered last week is being remediated…We have also learned that evidence of anthrax was found on the air-conditioning filter on the ninth floor of the Hart Building and the stairwell leading from the eighth floor to the ninth floor…In addition, late last night, we learned..the freight elevator in the southwest quadrant of the Hart..Building tested positive”

The Washington Post printed a story the next day, Oct.26, that “a test for anthrax in a mailroom in the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Silver Spring, Md., came back positive Thursday”… … 29_000.htm

The president spoke in an afternoon Cabinet Room meeting with members of Congress, minutes after his press secretary announced that a “small concentration” of anthrax spores were found on the slitter machine that opens White House mail at a Secret Servicecontrolled facility on property shared by the Anacostia Naval Station and Bolling Air Force Base….Experts believe it unlikely that a cross-contaminated letter would have contained enough anthrax to make someone sick.

The New York Times printed a story on November 20 reporting investigators found “trace amounts of anthrax in the mailroom of the Washington headquarters of the Bureau of Prisons…the mailroom has been sealed off”

Government departments, buildings affected:

Agriculture – Economic Research office
Defense – Pentagon, Walter Reed
Federal Election Committee (FEC)
Federal Reserve [Treasury also received a ‘same-style’ threat letter in offsite mail]
Health and Human Serviices
Housing and Urban Development
Justice – Supreme Court
Social Security Administration
Veteran’s Administration
and Congress (6 buildings)


Washington D.C. area timeline

Oct 15 — Daschle letter opened in his suite inside the Hart Senate Office Building

Oct 17House and Senate buildings close
The US House and Senate chambers and office buildings are closed after it is announced that 31 people have been exposed to anthrax as a result of the letter sent to Sen. Tom Daschle.

Oct 20 –“Anthrax in House mailroom
In Washington, teams searching the Capitol and its office buildings find anthrax in the House of Representatives mailroom, located in the Ford Office Building. The germs were found in a mail-bundling machine. No House mail containing anthrax has been found.”

Oct 21 — “Brentwood worker’s Dx: inhalational anthrax
A man who works in the central mail-handling center in Washington, DC, is diagnosed with inhalational anthrax and is in serious condition in a Falls Church, Va., hospital. The man, identified as Leroy Richmond, sorts express mail at the postal center near the Baltimore-Washington International Airport and brings it to the Brentwood post office in northeast Washington. Both centers have been shut down for testing, but no anthrax has been found. Two other workers at the Brentwood center are ill and are being watched closely, health officials say.”

Oct 22 — “Two Brentwood workers die
Two Washington, DC, postal workers die of an illness believed to be pulmonary anthrax, and two others are hospitalized with pulmonary anthrax. All four worked in the capital’s main mail-processing center on Brentwood Road. The deceased workers are identified as Thomas L. Morris Jr. and Joseph Curseen. One of the hospitalized workers was identified earlier as Leroy Richmond, 57; the other has not been identified.” – the unidentified man checked into Inova Fairfax hospital on Oct.22, the same hospital as Mr. Richmond.

Oct 23 — “Anthrax traces in White House mail facility
Traces of anthrax are reported to have been found on a letter-slitting machine in a facility that processes mail for the White House but is located several miles away, at [Bolling] air base on the edge of Washington, DC.”

Oct 24 — …”the Hart building and all three House office buildings remain closed.”

Oct 25 — “Anthrax at Walter Reed
Anthrax is detected in a mailroom at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in Silver Spring, Md.”

–Virginia mail handler hospitalized
A State Department mail handler who works in Sterling, Va., about 20 miles from Washington, DC, is hospitalized with inhalational anthrax. His case is the first in the Washington area that appears unrelated to Washington’s Brentwood Road postal facility. The man is listed as in guarded condition. [three sorting machines turned up positive]

Oct 26 — “A worker from the State Department’s Alexandria,Virginia mail center..hospitalized in serious condition with inhalational anthrax.” [assumed to be the same case, Mr. Hose at the Sterling mailroom]

Anthrax found in neighborhood PO in DC
In tests of 36 neighborhood post offices in the Washington region, anthrax is found in one, at 45 L St. Southwest in Washington.”

—“Longworth [House of Rep.] occupants test positive
Capitol police say the offices of three congressmen in the Longworth House Office Building have tested positive for anthrax. The three are John Baldacci, D-Me., Rush D. Holt, D-N.J., and Mike Pence, R-Ind.”

—Supreme Court building closed  – Anthrax is found on an air filter from the US Supreme Court’s mail screening center in Forestville, Md., prompting closure of the Supreme Court building in Washington.

 trace at CIA facility  A “medically insignificant” trace of anthrax is found in the Central Intelligence Agency’s Material Inspection Facility, a building at CIA headquarters in Langley, Va.”

Oct 28 — Spores at another Washington site
Anthrax spores are found in an offsite office that handles mail for the Justice Department, bringing the number of Washington, DC, contamination sites to 18, the New York Times reports. 

>>>Oct 28 “Trucking mail for decontamination
Sen. Mike DeWine, R-Ohio, complains that only a few local officials were informed of a plan to truck 68 tons of mail from Washington, DC, to Ohio for decontamination.” >>>” Oct 31 Mail irradiated – Thousands of pieces of mail originally sent to Washington, DC, have been sanitized by irradiation in Ohio and are being trucked back to Washington for inspection in a search for clues to the source of the anthrax attacks.”

Oct 29 — Four more buildings have anthrax
Traces of anthrax turn up in mailrooms in four more government buildings in Washington, DC: the Supreme Court, the State Department, a Department of Agriculture office, and a building that houses the Voice of America and some offices of the Food and Drug Administration. All except the Supreme Court, which closed last week after anthrax was found in an off-site mail processing center, remain open. The Supreme Court justices are meeting at another location.   —-“The head of the US State Department’s medical unit says the State Department building in Washington is safe even though trace amounts of anthrax spores are probably ‘all over the place.’ ”

Nov 1 – “Anthrax at FDA headquarters
Anthrax spores have been found in four mailrooms at the FDA’s headquarters in Rockville, Md., according to a New York Times report.”

Nov 4 –WASHINGTON: The anthrax scare spread further as deadly spores were discovered at yet another mail distribution center in New Jersey, while investigators in Washington studied a suspicious letter sent to the US Treasury Department…  …”CNN reported on its website that the mailroom at a Veteran’s Administration Hospital in Washington has tested positive for the presence of the bacteria.”
….”Washington VA mailroom has anthrax traces
Traces of anthrax have turned up in the mailroom of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Washington, DC, VA officials report. The center received mail from the Brentwood postal facility in Washington
Nov 9 –“Investigators think Daschle letter not solely to blame for Washington anthrax
Investigators think Postal investigators in Washington announce that other mail containing anthrax bacteria was probably sent there last month in addition to the letter sent to the office of Sen. Tom Daschle. The basis for this view, according to John Nolan, deputy postmaster general, is that CDC experts say it is unlikely that the mail handler at a State Department postal center in Virginia who contracted inhalational anthrax could have been infected by a letter that had merely come in contact with the one sent to Daschle.”
Nov 10 –“Anthrax in five more Senate offices
Trace amounts of anthrax have been found in five more Senate offices in the same building where a letter containing the bacteria was opened Oct 15. Capitol Police Lt. Dan Nichols says anthrax spores were found in the offices of Sens. Max Baucus, D-Mont.; Russ Feingold, D-Wis.; Joseph Leiberman, D-Conn.; Barbara Mikulski, D-Md., and Arlen Specter, R-Pa. Police believe letters delivered to other offices in the Hart Senate Office Building may have been contaminated by the anthrax-filled letter sent to Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle, D-S.D.”
Nov 12 — “Anthrax found in three more Senate offices
Trace amounts of anthrax are found in the offices of three more senators, bringing to 11 the number of senators’ suites found in recent days to be contaminated. The most recent discoveries are in the offices of Sens. Richard Lugar, R-Ind.; Barbara Boxer, D-Calif.; and Jon Corzine, D-N.J. All 11 are in the Hart Senate office building, where an anthrax-filled letter was opened Oct. 15.
Nov 13 –” Anthrax traces spur testing at Howard University
Eight mail facilities at Howard University in Washington, DC, undergo precautionary testing after the school’s main mailroom tests positive for trace amounts of anthrax.”..

December 6 –”A batch of mail being processed at a mail-handling facility set up in a courtyard of the Federal Reserve’s headquarters tests positive for anthrax”

December 7 –”Officials assure government workers that all federal mail is being irradiated to render any anthrax spores harmless” (ucla link above)

Dec.14, 2001 – “Sen. Jim Bunning, R-KY, said Friday that traces of anthrax had just been found in the mailroom of his office, which is in a different wing and floor of the Hart Building than Daschle’s suite…The EPA pumped chlorine dioxide gas into Daschle’s suite two weeks ago….[CDC] spokeswoman April Bell said..”There appears to be only a small risk from the small number of spores on the surfaces now”…”




Oct 18 — Spores in US letters mailed abroad
Officials in Kenya and Argentina report finding anthrax spores in letters mailed from the United States.

Oct 19 — Brazil
New York Times officials say that an envelope postmarked in New York City and received at the newspaper’s Rio de Janeiro offices contained anthrax.

Anthrax in Argentina
In Argentina, health officials say a travel brochure mailed from Florida to Argentina tested positive for anthrax.

Nov 1 — Anthrax in Lithuania
In Lithuania, a laboratory confirms that traces of anthrax were found in a mailbag from the US Embassy, the first such case in Europe. The embassy mailroom is sealed off and the 120 embassy employees are offered antibiotics.

Anthrax found in Kansas City
Preliminary tests indicate anthrax contamination at a stamp distribution center in Kansas City, Mo. Health officials there say the contamination most likely came from the Brentwood postal facility in Washington, DC. More than 170 Kansas City postal workers are given antibiotics.

Nov 2 — Anthrax in Pakistan
Overseas, Pakistan’s largest newspaper evacuates some of its editorial offices after anthrax is found on a letter.

–Anthrax in India
In India, the health secretary of a western state says that powder found in an envelope in a government office has tested positive for anthrax and will be examined further.


Sept. 18: An anthrax-laced letter postmarked in Trenton was sent to NBC and The New York Post. One letter infects two employees at NBC, while another infects three at The Post, even though it is never unsealed. Illnesses of at least two New Jersey postal workers appear related to these letters. Sept. 21: Johanna C. Huden, 31, New York Post editorial assistant and writer, notices blister on right finger. Blister bursts next day and in days following infection spreads. She goes to a doctor Sept. 29, then to two city hospital emergency rooms. But her cutaneous anthrax infection is not properly diagnosed for weeks. Recovered. Sept. 22: Richard Morgano, 39, a maintenance worker at Postal Service distribution center in Hamilton, N.J., has two mosquito-bite-sized spots on his arm. He goes to a doctor repeatedly starting Sept. 30, as infection spreads and his arms and shoulder swell. His cutaneous anthrax infection is not diagnosed for weeks. Recovering. Sept. 24: Ernesto Blanco, 73, mail room worker at American Media in Boca Raton, Fla., has onset of fatigue, which turns to fever, cough on Sept. 28. Admitted to hospital Oct. 1; inhalation anthrax not confirmed until Oct. 15. Recovering. Robert Stevens, 63, photo editor at The Sun, first feels ill. Admitted to a Florida hospital Oct. 2; inhalation anthrax confirmed Oct. 4. Dies the next day. Teresa Heller, West Trenton, N.J., letter carrier, develops cutaneous anthrax lesion on her arm. Hospitalized on Oct. 3; diagnosed on Oct. 18. Recovering. Sept. 28: Erin M. O’Connor, 38, assistant to NBC anchor Tom Brokaw, develops skin lesion on her collarbone around this date. She goes to a doctor Oct. 1 and repeatedly visits doctors; case not confirmed as cutaneous anthrax until Oct. 12. Recovering. Casey Chamberlain, 23, of Jersey City, NBC desk assistant, notices rash on her leg. Starts taking antibiotics Oct. 1; confirmed to have probable case of cutaneous anthrax on Oct. 24. Recovered. Sept. 29: Sevenmonthold son of ABC producer falls ill, day after visiting mother at work. First goes to a doctor Sept. 30; admitted to a hospital Oct. 1, nearly dies. Cutaneous anthrax not diagnosed until Oct. 15. Recovering. Oct. 1: CBS news aide Claire Fletcher, 27, develops two small facial pimples; over next 24 hours, has facial swelling, nausea. Takes antibiotics on Oct. 4;. confirmed cutaneous Oct. 18. Recovered. Oct. 4: Mr. Stevens’s anthrax confirmed. Eight other cases in New Jersey, New York and Florida are not yet known. Oct. 5: Mr. Stevens dies in the hospital. Oct. 7: American Media building in Florida closed after anthrax spores found on Mr. Stevens’s computer keyboard. Oct. 9: Anthrax-laced letters postmarked Trenton, for Senators Tom Daschle and Patrick J. Leahy. Letters apparently infect at least nine Washington and New Jersey postal workers. Two die. Oct. 12: Ms. O’Connor, NBC news aide, is confirmed to have cutaneous anthrax, the first case outside Florida. Same day, investigators discover anthrax-laced letter sent to NBC from Trenton, postmarked Sept. 18. Following her confirmation, cases at ABC, CBS, New York Post confirmed. Oct. 13: An unidentified 54yearold Delaware resident who works at Bellmawr, N.J., postal sorting center, develops lesion on left hand; listed as suspected cutaneous case Oct. 31. Oct. 14: Norma Wallace, 56, postal worker at Hamilton, N.J., develops nausea. She was hospitalized Oct. 19; listed as suspected case Oct. 23, New Jersey’s first inhalation case. Discharged from hospital Nov. 5. Recovering. Patrick Daniel O’Donnell, 35, of Bucks County, Pa., Hamilton postal worker has strange red marks on neck, swelling later causing breathing difficulty; his neck ultimately expanding to 26 inches. Visits doctor Oct. 15; admitted to the hospital Oct. 16. Case confirmed Oct. 19. Recovered. Oct. 15: Aide to Senator Daschle opens anthrax-contaminated letter. Capitol Hill staff immediately given antibiotics; none infected. Postal workers not given antibiotics as risk to them is unrecognized. A 43yearold mail sorter in New Jersey develops intermittent fevers, chills, dry cough. Visits doctor Oct. 16, hospitalized Oct. 18, discharged from the hospital on Oct. 23. Case listed as suspected inhalational anthrax Oct. 25. Recovering. Mr. Blanco, American Media mailroom worker, confirmed inhalation anthrax. Oct. 16: Twelve Senate offices are closed, hundreds of people at the Senate are tested. No one has onset of disease. But four Washington postal workers fall ill. Leroy Richmond, 56, of Stafford County, Va., a sorter at the Brentwood mail center in Washington, develops low-grade fever, chills, sore throat. Hospitalized Oct. 19. Inhalation anthrax is confirmed the next day. Released Nov. 19. Recovering. A 56-year-old postal worker notices mild headache, stiff neck. Admitted to hospital Oct. 20; discharged Nov. 9. Inhalation anthrax case is quickly confirmed. Recovering. Thomas Morris Jr., 55, postal employee becomes ill, with fever, cough, chest discomfort. Arrives at hospital Oct. 21. Dies same day, with his inhalation anthrax confirmed after his death. Joseph Curseen, 47, postal employee becomes ill with stomach cramps, nausea, cough. Seeks medical care Oct. 21; and dies the next day. Inhalation anthrax confirmed after his death. Oct. 17: Linda Burch, 51-year-old bookkeeper at Hamilton-area firm,develops large pimple on her forehead. Admitted to hospital Oct. 22 and cutaneous anthrax confirmed Oct. 29, two days after she is discharged from hospital. Oct. 18: Teresa Heller, West Trenton letter carrier, and Richard Morgano, Hamilton postal worker, listed as confirmed or suspected cutaneous anthrax cases. They are the first known New Jersey cases and first known postal cases in the United States. Postal service’s Hamilton distribution center closed, hundreds of workers given antibiotics, almost a month after the first worker there was infected. Ms. Fletcher, the CBS news aide, is confirmed as positive for cutaneous anthrax. Oct. 19: Ms. Huden, of The New York Post, confirmed with cutaneous anthrax. Anthrax-laced letter postmarked Sept. 18 is found, although it was never opened, just stored near where Ms. Huden worked. Unidentified 34yearold New York Post mail room worker notices pimple on left arm. He had moved the anthrax letter Oct. 12, as a precaution after the NBC case was announced. Listed suspected cutaneous anthrax Oct. 27. Recovering. Patrick O’Donnell, New Jersey postal worker, is confirmed with cutaneous anthrax. Oct. 20: Washington officials announce that Mr. Richmond is seriously ill with anthrax and others are being tested, the first recognition by the government that Washington area postal workers are at risk, almost a month after the first postal worker fell ill. Oct. 21: Mr. Morris, a postal worker, dies of inhalation anthrax on the same day he arrives at the hospital. The Brentwood center is closed, and several thousand postal workers there are given anthtibiotics. Hamilton Township, N.J., postal distribution center samples test positive, hundreds of workers given nasal swab tests. Oct. 22: Mr. Curseen, another postal worker, after having been turned away from a hospital the day before, returns to hospital, this time by ambulance; admitted but dies within six hours. A 59yearold contract postal employee at State Department mail sorting facility becomes ill, hospitalized Oct. 25, inhalation case immediately confirmed. Recovering. Oct. 23: New Jersey officials tentatively announce that Ms. Wallace, a postal employee, has inhalation anthrax. Inhalation cases now confirmed in Florida, New Jersey and the District of Columbia. Mr. Blanco is released from the hospital. Thousands of Manhattan postal workers given antibiotics; none get ill. Oct. 24: Mark Cunningham, 38, a New York Post editorial page editor, has a pimple on his forehead, had handled box of unopened letters around Oct. 12. Not diagnosed with cutaneous anthrax until Nov. 2. Recovered. New York Post mail room worker [Monagas], 34, listed with suspected cutaneous anthrax. Casey Chamberlain, 23, NBC desk assistant, listed as “suspicious or probably case” of cutaneous anthrax Oct. 25: Kathy T. Nguyen, 61, of the Bronx, an employee at Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, falls ill; goes to emergency room Oct. 28 awake and alert; she quickly declines and dies Oct. 31. Anthrax spores found at Morgan postal center in Manhattan. The C.D.C. lists as suspected inhalation case the 43-year-old postal worker from New Jersey. Oct. 29: Ms. Nguyen’ s case confirmed; Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital closed; hundreds of employees and patients tested starting the next day. Ms. Burch, of Hamilton Township, is confirmed cutaneous anthrax case. Mail bin at her office is later found to have anthrax spores, probably the result of mail that had merely touched the Daschle or Leahy letters. Recovered. Oct. 31: An unidentified 54-year-old Delaware resident, who works in a New Jersey postal center, listed as suspected cutaneous anthrax case. Ms. Nguyen dies. Nov. 13: Ottilie W. Lundgren, 94, a retiree and widow who lived alone in Oxford, first falls ill. Nov. 16: Mrs. Lundgren arrives at Griffin Hospital in Derby, Conn., with symptoms resembling those of an upper respiratory infection, including fever, cough, weakness and muscle aches. Nov. 20: Mrs. Lundgren’s inhalation anthrax case announced by the authorities. Nov. 21: Mrs. Lundgren dies. Nov. 30: Connecticut officials say trace amount of anthrax discovered on a letter delivered to a family living one mile from Mrs. Lundgren’s home. The letter, received in early October, was processed in a New Jersey mail center within 15 seconds of the contaminated letters sent to two United States senators. * Ages given are at time of onset of conditions. (Sources: Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; New Jersey, Connecticut and New York City health departments; victim interviews)


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